Healthier Populations, Everywhere

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Pharyngitis, more commonly known as sore throat, is caused by viral and/or bacterial infections. Group A Streptococcus (Strep A) is the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis. Strep A pharyngitis...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the superficial layer of skin. Impetigo is caused by group A Streptococcus (Strep A) and Staphylococcus aureus, alone or in combination, with...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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Cellulitis is an acute bacterial infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue usually found complicating a wound, ulcer, or dermatosis. This article provides guidelines for the surveillance of cellulitis. The...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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Invasive group A streptococcal (Strep A) infections occur when Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus, invades a normally sterile site in the body. This article provides guidelines...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder that results from the body’s autoimmune response to pharyngitis or a skin infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Strep A). Acute rheumatic...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a long-term sequela of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), which classically begins after an untreated or undertreated infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Strep A). RHD develops...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is an immune complex-induced glomerulonephritis that develops as a sequela of streptococcal infections. This article provides guidelines for the surveillance of APSGN due to group A...
Publication
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
MMGH Authors
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This section contains country experiences on COVID-19 vaccination, from the initial planning to the implementation. These are valuable sources of information on approaches and solutions for some of the common...
Publication
TechNet-21
MMGH Authors
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Background: A pressing need exists to develop vaccines for neglected diseases, including leishmaniasis. However, the development of new vaccines is dependent on their value to two key players–vaccine developers and...
Publication
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Volume 16, Issue 6, pp. 10471-10487
MMGH Authors
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Background: The “Ending Cholera: A Global Roadmap to 2030” (Roadmap) was launched in October 2017. Following its launch, it became clear that additional evidence is needed to assist countries in...
Publication
PLOS ONE Volume 17, Issue 5, pp. 264952-264963
MMGH Authors
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Historically, clinical development and approval of vaccines have spanned approximately 10 years with only ~16% of vaccine candidates ever receiving market authorisation. The long timelines and the low success rates...
Publication
Wellcome Trust
MMGH Authors
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World Health Organisation (WHO) preferred product characteristics describe preferences for product attributes that would help optimise value and use to address global public health needs, with a particular focus on...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 40, Issue 26, pp. 3506-3510
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Background: To inform the World Health Organisation’s full value of vaccine assessment for group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines, a rapid literature appraisal was conducted to inform the operationalisation of maternal...
Publication
Clinical Infectious Diseases Volume 74, Issue Supplement 1, pp. S80–S87
MMGH Authors
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Background: Despite group B Streptococcus (GBS) being a leading cause of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, no vaccine is currently available. To inform vaccine developers, countries, and funders, we...
Publication
Clinical Infectious Diseases Volume 74, Issue Supplement 1, pp. S70–S79
MMGH Authors
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Immunisation is among the most cost-effective public health interventions available and is estimated to have averted at least 37 million deaths between 2000 and 2019. Since the establishment of the...
Publication
The Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 224, Issue Supplement 4, pp. S452-S467
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The development of vaccines against one or all forms of human leishmaniasis remains hampered by a paucity of investment, at least in part resulting from the lack of well-evidenced and...
Publication
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Volume 15, Issue 9, pp. 9742-9760
MMGH Authors
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Founded in 2017, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is an international partnership that finances and coordinates the development of new vaccines to prevent and contain infectious disease epidemics...
Publication
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation
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Vaccines are recognised as one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available, yet the global vaccine ecosystem is not structured to fully realise their potential to improve health. Systemic...
Publication
The Sabin-Aspen Vaccine Science & Policy Group
MMGH Authors
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The Cholera Roadmap Research Agenda identifies knowledge gaps most important to cholera experts and stakeholders and establishes a prioritised list of research questions that, when answered, will have a significant...
Publication
The Global Task Force on Cholera Control
MMGH Authors
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Measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with an estimated 9.7 million cases and more than 140,000 measles-related deaths in 2018. It is one of the most...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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ViPS and Ty21a markets are largely focused on the private sector and travellers markets. Given the product characteristics of TCV, it is anticipated that demand for these markets will decrease...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Objective: An independent external evaluation of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN) research programme to emphasise the public health significance of childhood pneumonia in India. Method: An independent evaluation based...
Publication
Indian Pediatrics Volume 58, Issue 11, pp. 1074-1076
MMGH Authors
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The Monitoring & Evaluation/Accountability (M&E/A) framework to assess progress was a critical element of the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2012–2020 (GVAP) and was seen by many as a game changer....
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 33, pp. 5384-5386
MMGH Authors
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Introduction: The Monitoring & Evaluation/Accountability (M&E/A) framework of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was used to report progress annually to the World Health Assembly (WHA). Methods: Stakeholder feedback was...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 33, pp. 5379-5383
MMGH Authors
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Introduction: The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), unanimously endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, defined an ambitious strategy to improve immunisation. At the end of the decade, significant...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 33, pp. 5372-5378
MMGH Authors
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Objectives: To examine the characteristics of existing maternal tetanus immunisation programmes for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and to identify and understand the challenges, barriers and facilitators...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 33, pp. 5268-5277
MMGH Authors
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Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vaccines are currently under development and there is a need to understand their potential impact on population wide VL incidence. We implement four characteristics from different...
Publication
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Volume 14, Issue 7, pp. 8460-8480
MMGH Authors
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National introduction of PCV in infant routine immunisation in 42 countries – including large ones like India, China and Indonesia – will trigger an increase of demand in excess of...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Prior to the addition of a maternal vaccine onto the National Immunisation Programme, it is important for a country to evaluate their capacity and readiness. This checklist has been developed...
Publication
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics Volume 16, Issue 12 pp. 3177-3183
MMGH Authors
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For lifetime protection against diphtheria and tetanus, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends six doses of diphtheria and tetanus containing vaccines. Td (reduced diphtheria toxoid, ≥2-5 IU) vaccines are currently...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 21, pp. 3800-3807
MMGH Authors
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and hospitalisation in infants and children globally. Many observational studies have found an association between RSV...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 11, pp. 2435-2448
MMGH Authors
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Middle income countries have little financial support from donors for vaccine purchases and little vaccine price and market information, hampering their ability to negotiate equitable prices. Since 2014, WHO’s Market...
Publication
BMJ 2020, pp. 368:l5375
MMGH Authors
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Background: Vaccines for the control of seasonal influenza are recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for use in specific risk groups, but their use requires operational considerations that may...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 38, Issue 2, pp. 212-219
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Immunisation has made an enormous contribution to global health. Global vaccination coverage has dramatically improved and mortality rates among children due to vaccine-preventable diseases have been significantly reduced since the...
Publication
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz Volume 63, pp. 25–31
MMGH Authors
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Immunisation represents one of the most cost-effective means to improve the health and well-being of populations and contribute to sustainable development. Since the inception of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation...
Publication
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz Volume 63, pp. 16–24
MMGH Authors
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Twelve years after the first HPV vaccine registration, less than half of WHO Member States have introduced HPV vaccine into the routine national immunisation schedule. Introductions are lowest in Gavi...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011–2020 (GVAP) was developed to help realise the vision of the Decade of Vaccines, that all individuals and communities enjoy lives free from vaccine-preventable diseases....
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Health workers represent an important target group for seasonal influenza vaccination because of their increased risk of infection as well as the risk of transmitting infection to vulnerable patients in...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 37, Issue 43, pp. 6255-6261
MMGH Authors
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In 2017, a total of 8,819 cases of diphtheria were reported worldwide, the most since 2004. However, recent diphtheria epidemiology has not been well described. We analyzed incidence data and...
Publication
Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Volume 25, Issue 10, pp. 1834-1842
MMGH Authors
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Market shaping for health products used in lower-income countries strives to benefit public health. As a funder of vaccines, Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) has goals for its market shaping...
Publication
Vaccine: X Volume 2, 100033
MMGH Authors
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Background: Rotavirus vaccine use in national immunisation programmes has led to declines in hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children; however, the global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction has not...
Publication
Lancet Global Health Volume 7, Issue 7, pp. e893-903
MMGH Authors
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Introduction: Maternal immunisation (MI) with tetanus toxoid containing vaccine, is a safe and cost-effective way of preventing neonatal tetanus. Given the prospect of introducing new maternal vaccines in the near...
Publication
BMJ Open Volume 9, Issue 6
MMGH Authors
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WHO recommends that all countries: 1) follow a life course of 6 doses of Diphtheria and Tetanus (D&T)-containing vaccines and 2) replace TT with Td vaccine. As of January 2019,...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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The meningococcal vaccine market is diverse and complex, with regional variations in serogroup distribution, significant use outside of routine immunisation, and 29 marketed products targeting various combinations of the six...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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For the next five years, the annual BCG vaccine supply is estimated to be ~2X greater than the annual forecasted demand, which is an increase from the 2017 analysis and...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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MMGH Consulting GmbH proposes to assist the WHO / IVB in evaluating SAGE’s current scope, objectives, working mechanisms and processes. The evaluation will assess the relevance, effectiveness and quality of...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has the potential to dramatically reduce disease burden. As with any vaccine, it...
Publication
BMC Public Health Volume 19, Article 333
MMGH Authors
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In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines...
Publication
Weekly Epidemiological Record Volume 8, 2019, 94, pp. 85–104
MMGH Authors
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In response to repeated calls from WHO Member States, WHO launched the Market Information for Access to Vaccines (MI4A) initiative to enhance vaccine market transparency and understand global vaccine market...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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A midterm review was undertaken to assess progress made by the WHO European Region (the Region) in implementing the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (EVAP) as of its mid-point at...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines...
Publication
Weekly Epidemiological Record Volume 13, 2018, 93, pp. 153–172
MMGH Authors
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Over the past decade, several countries across all regions, income groups and procurement methods have been unable to secure sufficient BCG vaccine supply. While the frequency of stock-outs has remained...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 36, Issue 4, pp. 498-506
MMGH Authors
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A National Immunisation Program Review (NIP Review) is a comprehensive external assessment of the performance of a country’s immunisation programme. The number of recommended special-topic NIP assessments, such as those...
Publication
The Pan African Medical Journal No. 28, pp. 209
MMGH Authors
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The Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) is a network of cholera experts, including governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies, scientific experts and others, who share the belief...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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The Regional Strategic Plan for Immunisation (RSPI) for the African region was adopted, in 2014, by the 64th session of the WHO Regional Committee for Africa with the goal of...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Typhoid fever remains an important cause of enteric disease in children in low and middle income countries with global estimates of disease burden ranging between 11 and 21 million typhoid...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial...
Publication
Pediatric Radiology Volume 47, Issue 11, pp. 1399-1404
MMGH Authors
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The Government of Lao PDR, after intensive deliberations in the country’s NITAG and ICC and with the consent of all immunisation partners, herewith submits its application for Gavi support for...
Publication
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance
MMGH Authors
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Immunization is a success story for global health and development, saving millions of lives every year. Between 2010 and 2018, 23 million deaths were averted with measles vaccine alone. The...
Publication
World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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Background: In 2013, the World Health Organisation’s (WHO’s) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose...
Publication
The Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 216, Issue Supplement 1, pp. S152–S160
MMGH Authors
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The case-control methodology is frequently used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness post-licensure. The results of such studies provide important insight into the level of protection afforded by vaccines in a ‘real...
Publication
Vaccine Volume 35, Issue 25, pp. 3303-308
MMGH Authors
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Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programmes. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under ‘real world’ conditions,...
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Vaccine Volume 35, Issue 25, pp. 3295-302
MMGH Authors
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Established since 2010, the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (IPAC) is an independent committee of experts which provides external advice to WHO’s Department on Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB) on the...
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World Health Organisation
MMGH Authors
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