Understanding the vaccine ecosystem: structure and challenges
Vaccines are recognised as one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available, yet the global vaccine ecosystem is not structured to fully realise their potential to improve health. Systemic constraints are preventing or slowing the development of a large number of scientifically possible candidates.
This paper describes the existing vaccine ecosystem; the influences on the decision making processes of developers; the challenges that arise between a vaccine candidate’s transition into Phase 2 clinical development and first country introductions; and their impact on cost, development time and public health benefits. The background and analysis here provide content to inform solutions that can break down systemic barriers limiting the availability of vaccines.