Global market study: Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) and polysaccharide (PPV) vaccines
National introduction of PCV in infant routine immunisation in 42 countries – including large ones like India, China and Indonesia – will trigger an increase of demand in excess of 60 million doses over the next ten years. Supply of PCV will increase by 60%, with at least two new manufacturers with prequalified vaccines entering the market in the next five years. The supply/demand balance for PCV is currently sufficient, with limited buffer, and is expected to improve with additional manufacturers' entrance. However, over the medium-term, strong country preferences for specific vaccine subtypes may cause imbalances and require specific action. The evolution of demand for older populations also requires monitoring, particularly in the context of potential increased demand due to COVID-19 and potential policy changes. PCV introduction has been particularly slow in non-Gavi, non-PAHO middle-income countries (MICs), which have the lowest percentage of countries introduced (58%) and infants immunised; PCV demand in non-Gavi, non-PAHO MICs could more than double by 2030. Where introduced, PCV represents a substantial strain on immunisation budgets. Lower prices for MICs are expected from new entrants. PPV demand and supply, concentrated in MICs and high-income countries (HICs), is unstable and should be carefully monitored, particularly in the context of potential increased demand due to COVID-19.